Career Options, Course Details, Eligibility, Top Colleges

Computer Technology through BCA

BCA – Eligibility Criteria

Unlike the B.Tech or B.E. course in Computer Science and Engineering or Information technology students aspiring for a BCA course do not need to have Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics as compulsory subjects in their Class 12th examinations. Students from the field of arts and commerce are equally eligible for joining the course as the ones from the science background. However, some basic eligibility criteria for pursuing a BCA course are as mentioned below: 

  • Candidate can be from any stream: science, arts, commerce
  • They should have passed their class 12th with English as a compulsory subject with minimum 45% aggregate marks.
  • Some universities admit students purely on merit basis (class 12th examinations) while some others admit students based on personal interviews and entrance examinations.
  • Some universities conduct their own entrance tests as well.
  • The candidate should be a citizen of India.

BCA – Admission Process

A large number of institutes across the country offer a course in Bachelors in Computer Application. However, each institute has its own admission criteria. Like for example, some colleges admit students purely on merit basis (class 12th marks) some others requires students to appear for entrance exams and personal interviews. While on the other hand some universities even conduct their own entrance tests.  Some institutes also offer students the choice of lateral entry i.e. direct admission in the second year of the BCA course.

To be eligible for this admission criteria the student must have passed their class 12th along with a computer course of 6 months. Also, students with a three-year diploma in IT from State Board of Technical Education are also eligible for lateral entry to BCA program. The application process for a majority of BCA courses starts around the month of May and June. Depending on the students choice of institutes they will need to fill out application forms in both online and offline mode.

BCA Entrance Exams

BCA entrance exam is generally an objective type questionnaire and its syllabus is based on class 12th subjects. Some of the popular universities that conduct BCA entrance tests are:

  • Indira Gandhi National Open University –
  • Symbiosis University –
  • Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
  • Banaras Hindu University
  • Panjab University
  • Christ University, Bangalore

Some of the popular BCA Entrance Exams are as follows:


What does BCA course cover?

BCA courses mainly comprise of subjects like the database, networking, data structure, core programming languages, software engineering, object-oriented programming, web scripting, and development etc. The courses open up opportunities for students interested in the field of computer science and information technology. The BCA course curriculum is somewhat similar to a B.Tech in computer science or information technology.

BCA Specialization options

Bachelors in computer science is a vast field and offers a multitude of specialisations for students. Some of the popular specialisations resulting from a BCA course are:

• Computer Graphics
• Internet Technologies
• Accounting Applications
• Animation
• Music and Video Processing
• Personal Information Management
• Programming Languages
• Database Management
• Systems Analysis
• Word Processing

These are just some of the specialisation popular among students. However, with the rapidly expanding domains of this field, a lot of new specialisations are also opening up.


Top BCA Colleges in India

Numerous colleges in India offer BCA programmes. However, here are some of the best colleges to pursue a BCA course:

  • Christ University, Bangalore
  • Department of Computer Applications, SRM University, Chennai
  • Institute of Management Studies, Noida
  • Madras Christian College, Chennai
  • Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi
  • Presidency College, Bengaluru
  • University College-Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra
  • Symbiosis Institute of Computer Science and Research
  • St. Joseph’s College, Bangalore

After BCA

One question that troubles almost every graduate irrespective of their academic backgrounds is ‘what next?’ There a wide range of options available to a student after pursuing a course in Bachelors in Computer Science. Let’s look at some of the options that students have post completing their BCA degree: 

Higher Studies

After successful completion of their studies, BCA graduates can opt for higher studies. Some of the higher studies courses they can pursue are as follows:


As far as higher studies after BCA are concerned the next stop for students after successfully completing their BCA is to go for MCA, it’s a postgraduate level course in computer application. The course helps students dwell deeper in the field and equip themselves with the set of tools and knowledge essential to succeed in the field. In order to secure admission in an MCA course, they have to appear for MCA entrance exams.


Another popular course option for higher studies after BCA is to opt for an MBA course to earn a management degree. A lot of BCA graduates take up an MBA course after their graduation. However to secure admission in an MBA course students will need to appear for MBA entrance tests such as CAT, XAT, MAT etc.

CCNP or CCNA Certifications

A Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) is an IT Professional who has achieved a professional level of Cisco career certification, that is a type of professional certification created by Cisco Systems. It is for best for Network Operations Specialist, Network administrators & engineers. There are six areas of the professional Certifications namely, CCNP Cloud, CCNP Collaboration, CCNP Data Centre, CCNP Routing and Switching, CCNP Security, CCNP Service Provider, CCNP Wireless.

Career Prospects

The IT industry is growingly rapidly and with this, the demand for BCA graduates too is increasing every passing day. BCA graduates have good job prospects both in the government and private sector companies.

Private Companies

After successfully passing their BCA course, students can easily find lucrative job opportunities in leading IT companies like Oracle, IBM, Infosys and Wipro. Some of the roles that one can bag after completing a BCA programme is that of a System engineer, software tester, junior programmer, web developer, system administrator, software developer etc.

Government Sector

BCA graduates also have good employability opportunities in public sector organizations. Government organizations like the Indian Air Force(IAF), Indian Army, and India Navy hire a large bunch of computer professionals for their IT department.

Some popular job profiles for a BCA graduate are: –

  • System engineer – A system engineer develops, tests and evaluates software, circuits, and personal computer.
  • Programmer in various software development firms – The duty of programmer is to write code for software. A programmer is primarily working in the computer language such as Assembly, COBOL, C, C++, C#, Java, Lisp, Python, etc.
  • Web developer – A web developer is a programmer who specializes in the development of world wide web applications. The role of a web developer is to build and maintain websites. A web developer must have skills in HTML/XHTML, CSS, PHP, JavaScript , etc.They find good career opportunities in various web designing companies and online digital marketing companies.
  • Software developer – The sole responsibility of software developer is to develop software that eases the tasks of the people and enable to perform work efficiently. A software developer also installs test and maintains the software.


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Career Options, Courses, Subjects, Scope, Salary, Exams, Jobs

Different disciplines through B.E / B.Tech

What is B.Tech Course?

B.Tech stands for Bachelor of Technology. It is an undergraduate level programme that is pursued by science stream students after the completion of Class 12 Science. The four year programme is offered by engineering colleges across India including top colleges such as IITs and NITs. Many technology schools also use the term B.E or Bachelor of Engineering for the professional engineering undergraduate programmes. However, as far as India is concerned, only the nomenclature of the programme is different while the syllabus and teaching pedagogy is the same for both the programmes.

B.Tech – Eligibility Criteria

B.Tech is an undergraduate level professional engineering programme. Therefore, the eligibility required to seek admission to B.Tech programme is clearing Class 12 or 10+2 from science stream. Students who have taken PCM group or the Physics Chemistry and Mathematics as compulsory subjects are preferred for the programme.

There is also a lateral entry scheme to B.Tech programme that is offered to students holding a Diploma degree in engineering domains. Students who have joined Diploma programmes after Class 10 or Class 12 in technical trades can seek admission to B.Tech programmes offered by engineering colleges in India.

B.Tech – Admission Process

Engineering is one of the most popular career options in India. The competition to get admission to top engineering colleges in India for B.Tech programme is fierce. Therefore, to screen the students as per their merit, admission to B.Tech programmes are granted on the basis of students’ performance in engineering entrance tests. Popular engineering entrance tests like JEE Main, JEE Advanced, BITSAT, AP EMCET test students on basics of engineering, in line with the Class 12 syllabus. And based on their performance, students are shortlisted for counselling and further screening process prior to the admission to B.Tech programmes.

B.Tech Entrance Exams

Every year, nearly 11 lakh engineering aspirants take up engineering entrance exams in the country. There are different types of engineering entrance exams i.e.

National Level Engineering Entrance Exams

National level Engineering Exams the eligibility exams that are conducted to screen engineering aspirants for admission to All-India level Engineering institutes. Many private and state-level institutes also accept score and rank of the national level engineering entrance exam as part of their admission process. The two key national level engineering entrance exams are:

JEE Main – Joint Entrance Examination – Main

JEE Main is a national level engineering entrance exam. It is a screening test for students who are seeking admission to B.Tech programmes at IITs, NITs and other top engineering colleges in India. It also acts as an eligibility test for JEE Advanced – the second stage of Joint Entrance Exam, which tests students for admission to premier tech schools i.e. the IITs. 

JEE Advanced – Joint Entrance Exam – Advanced

JEE Advanced is the second stage screening test for students who are seeking admission to premier technology schools and engineering colleges of India i.e. IITs. The top 2,24,000 students from JEE Main exam are eligible to take up JEE Advanced exam.

State Level Engineering Entrance Exams

Similarly, many states also conduct state-level engineering entrance exams / entrance exam for admission to professional courses offered by state funded government colleges and institutes. Some private institutes and colleges also accept scores of the state-level entrance exam as part of the admission process. There are many state-level engineering entrance exams which are conducted to screen students for admission to B.Tech programmes. For example:

WBJEE – West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination

WBJEE is a state-level entrance exam that is conducted by the West Bengal Joint Entrance Examinations Board (WBJEEB). It is an engineering entrance exam through which students are screened for admission to professional undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in Engineering, Technology, Architecture and Pharmacy in Government colleges and universities aided by the West Bengal Government.

UPSEE – Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Examination

Conducted by the Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, UPSEE is a state-level engineering entrance exam for students of Uttar Pradesh. The test is an eligibility test for students, especially engineering aspirants, seeking admission to professional courses offered by institutes, universities and colleges affiliated to the AKTU. Apart from government aided colleges, several private engineering colleges also accept UPSEE score for admission to B.Tech programmes.

Institute Specific Engineering Entrance Exams

When it comes to admission to B.Tech programmes, there are several private institutes and engineering colleges that conduct their own entrance tests to screen students for admission. These institute-specific exams are conducted by the respective institute and it grants admission to students to different affiliated colleges and the different courses offered by them.

BITSAT – Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test

BITSAT is an institute specific engineering entrance exam which is conducted by the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani. BITSAT is a must appear engineering entrance exam for students who are seeking admission to B.Tech programmes at the BITS Pilani and its allied campuses at Goa and Hyderabad.

VITEEE – VIT Engineering Entrance Examination

Conducted by the Vellore Institute of Technology, the VITEEE is another institute specific engineering entrance exam that enables engineering aspirants to seek admission to B.Tech programmes offered at VIT, Vellore and VIT Chennai.

B.Tech vs B.E

Globally, graduate level professional engineering courses are classified into two variants i.e. B.Tech / Bachelor of Technology and B.E. / Bachelor of Engineering. Globally, B.E programmes are more theoretical in nature while B.Tech programmes tend to more practical and skill driven. However, in India, the majority of engineering programmes are termed as B.Tech and even those who follow the nomenclature of B.E have the same syllabus and curriculum.

What does B.Tech course cover?

The B.Tech programme is a 4 year professional engineering programme that primarily focuses on teaching both, the theoretical as well as the practical skill-based training of engineering students. But, as the name suggests, it is a technology centric programme which is more focused on the application and skill based study. To put it simply, the programme lays emphasis upon skill oriented learning and practical training of the students. Therefore, industrial visits and internships are also a compulsory component of B.Tech programmes in India.

B.Tech Specialization options

Engineering is an ever evolving domain that has several existing branches and sub-disciplines. On top of that, new specialization options also keep on emerging with the development of new technologies. The key among them include:

Chemical Engineering

Bio-molecular Engineering

Material Engineering

Molecular engineering

Process engineering

Corrosion engineering

Civil Engineering

Environmental engineering

Geotechnical engineering

Structural engineering

Transport engineering

Water resources engineering

Electrical engineering

Electronic engineering

Computer engineering

Power engineering

Optical engineering

Mechanical engineering

Acoustical engineering

Manufacturing engineering

Optomechanical engineering

Thermal engineering

Sports engineering

Vehicle engineering

Power plant engineering

Energy engineering

Interdisciplinary engineering specializations

Aerospace engineering

Agricultural engineering

Applied engineering

Biomedical engineering

Biomedical nanoengineering

Biological engineering

Building services engineering

Energy engineering

Railway engineering

Industrial engineering

Mechatronics engineering

Engineering management

Military engineering


Nuclear engineering

Petroleum engineering

Project engineering

Software engineering

Systems engineering

Textile engineering

These are just a few of the main engineering specializations that are popular in India. But, thanks to the evolving nature of the engineering domain, many new engineering specializations have also emerged in which B.Tech programmes are offered in India.

Top B.Tech Colleges in India

The top 10 colleges offering B.Tech courses in India as per MHRD’s NIRF based Engineering ranking include:

  1. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
  2. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
  3. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
  4. Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
  5. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
  6. Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
  7. Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad
  8. Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar
  9. Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar-Rupnagar
  10. Indian Institute of Technology, Patna

After B.Tech

Another question that students are faced with while deciding to pursue B.Tech for their graduation is the question ‘what after B.Tech’. B.Tech being a professional course offers students both the options i.e. either to go for further studies or opt for a job. So, let’s look at both these aspects in detail below:

Further Studies

M.Tech / M.E

As far as further studies is concerned, the next step for students after completing their B.Tech is go for M.Tech or M.E, both of which are postgraduate level professional degree programme offered by engineering colleges in India. M.Tech stands for Master of Technology, whereas M.E stands for Master of Engineering.

Just like B.Tech, students will have to opt for a specialization option for M.Tech programme during which they will dwell deeper in the respective discipline and gain the necessary knowledge and garner the expertise to excel in the field. In order to get selected to M.Tech programmes offered by top engineering colleges in India such as IITs and NITs, students have to appear for GATE – Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering.


The most preferred study option for most of the engineering graduates after their B.Tech programme is to opt for MBA to earn a management degree. Engineering graduates generally opt for take up a job through campus placements to garner work experience. And after a few years, they take up MBA / PDGM programme. In order to join top MBA colleges, students have to appear for CAT, XAT, MAT, CMAT or other popular MBA entrance exams.

Career Prospects

Being a professional course, B.Tech also opens up several career opportunities for the students after the completion of the programme. The among them are:

Campus Placements

All engineering colleges have a dedicated placement cell that work towards getting the engineering graduates placed in reputed organizations. Generally, after B.Tech, students are hired by private companies for entry-level job roles in technical fields. Students, who take up jobs through campus placements, generally do so, in order to gain the relevant experience in their field before further studies.

PSU Jobs

After B.Tech students can also take up technical jobs in Public Sector Undertakings through the GATE / Graduate Aptitude Test for Engineering. Many PSUs hire B.Tech students for entry-level jobs based upon their GATE score. A few PSUs such as CII, ISRO and BARC also conduct their own exams to screen B.Tech students for entry level jobs.                    

Engineering Services Exam

Engineering Services Exam is a national level screening test conducted by the UPSC / the Union Public Service Commission. The exam is the right choice for B.Tech students who aspire for government jobs in different sectors such as Defence, PWD, Railways etc. While the ESE exam pattern and syllabus is quite similar,  it also has a non-technical component and three-stage screening process, which makes it a tough exam to crack.

Private Companies

For students who do not want to opt for campus placements, they can also apply to different private companies for a job, after completing their B.Tech programme. Students can also take up employability tests such as AMCAT and eLitmus in order to prove their technical prowess and improve their chances of being selected for the job. After joining private companies in entry-level technical roles, students can gain the necessary knowledge and experience to earn promotions to rise the ranks of the corporate ladder.

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Courses, Salary & Job Opportunities

Disciplines After 12th Arts / Humanities

The bias against the Arts Stream

This is a completely baseless and misplaced prejudice and doesn’t hold true when it comes real world situation. Arts stream also has equal challenges and offers good opportunities to the students be it for further studies or career. In fact, for certain professional exams like UPSC Civil Services, the Arts stream subjects that you study during your high-school will help you build a strong foundation that can help you crack the exams in the future.

Arts stream is the stream of opportunities. It is one stream in which students have the opportunity to pick the domain that appeal most to them. So, let’s look at some of the key sub-domains of the arts stream.


Humanities is a vast field and defining it within a few words is very difficult. In general, humanities deal with the study and understanding of the ‘human condition’. This includes unearthing the historical background, understanding the reasons behind the evolution of human behaviour, socio-cultural, economic and political systems in the human society. This domain covers a vast array of subjects and the key among them include:

  • History
  • Languages
  • Literature
  • Law
  • Philosophy
  • Religion
  • Performing Arts
  • Anthropology
  • Communication
  • Sociology
  • Psychology

·Fine Arts

By definition, Fine Arts refer to an art form that is practiced solely for its aesthetic value and beauty. Fine Arts is a general umbrella term that includes Visual Arts, Performing Arts and Literary Arts. As a study stream, it refers to the development of creative skills and thought-process in all the three sub-domains mentioned above.

Visual Arts

As the name suggests, visual arts is the field that is associated with development of visual art forms. It covers learning about the famous artists and their works and understanding their motivation. In addition to these, it also involves developing one’s creative skills to create their own pieces of visual art i.e. drawing, painting, sculptures and others. The key sub-domains within visual arts stream include:

  • Painting
  • Drawing
  • Sculpture
  • Photography
  • Conceptual arts
  • Architecture
  • Weaving
  • Fabrics

Performing Arts

Performing Arts is also a sub-domain of the fine arts and involves development of performing arts skills in a student. The study of performing arts covers domains such as music, acting, dancing and theatre. Students will be involved in learning about the key techniques and skills required for performing arts. The key study domains within the performing arts stream include:

  • Music
  • Theatre
  • Dance
  • Singing
  • Acting
  • Comedy
  • Direction
  • Choreography
  • Editing
  • Martial art

Literary Arts

As the name suggests, the literary arts deals with development of literary art works i.e. books and novels. Writing and story-telling are the key skills one focuses upon while studying literary arts. Nowadays, it also involves script writing for movies, advertisement and creative copy writing for ATL and BTL marketing campaigns. The key specializations and domains in literary arts domain include:

  • Poetry
  • Novel
  • Short stories
  • Epics
  • writing

How to pick the right subjects / sub-domain?

When it comes to the arts stream, the majority of the students opt for Humanities subjects along with a few electives from fine arts sub-domain. High-school is a foundation course, and therefore, students are introduced to a variety of subjects that fall under the arts stream during this period. However, when it comes to selection of the subjects or sub-domain, students must keep the following things in mind:

  • Interest:Students must first consider their interest and passion towards a subject or a sub-domain before making a decision. Being a creative and research based stream, your interest will pay a pivotal role when it comes to higher studies in college and even for the career decisions after that.
  • Strengths:Along with identifying your interest areas, you must also take into account your strengths and weaknesses. These will help you to take the correct decision as far as selection of the sub-domains and subjects, is concerned.
  • Scope of further studies:Another very important factor that you must consider is the academic scope and career scope. Every subject and sub-domain in the arts stream is vast in nature and covers a diverse array of topics and concepts. Therefore, it is important for one to understand the scope of further studies in the subject or the domain that they are picking.

Scope of further studies in the Arts stream

Among the many factors that students need to consider while picking a stream after Class 10th; one of the most crucial one has to be the scope of further study. While the science and commerce streams have their key subjects as common; the case is quite different when it comes to the Arts stream. For the Arts stream, the plethora of options available for further studies makes it important for the students to pick the right subjects during the high-school level itself. For instance, a someone looking forward to build their career in Cartography, it is important for them to select Geography as one of the electives during high-school. In addition to this, the Arts stream also offers a host courses and training programmes to the students. The key among them are mentioned below:

· Bachelor’s Degree Courses

Bachelor of Arts / B.A is most popular undergraduate level course that is available to the students after completion of their high school. The course is offered in a variety of subjects which students can choose as per the career path they want to pursue. Generally, during the first year of the course, students have to pick three key subjects and during the final year, one core subject has to be picked for specialization. The popular Bachelor’s degree courses available for Arts stream students include:

  • B.A in History
  • B.A in Geography
  • B.A in Political Science
  • B.A in Public Administration
  • B.A in English Literature
  • B.A in Economics
· Technical Courses

Just because you picked the Arts stream doesn’t mean that you don’t get to tech oriented courses. There are a few technical courses also available for the Arts stream students at the undergraduate level which can put you on the path to building a bright career in technical domain. The key among them include:

· Law Courses

If legal services and law is something that interests you, Law courses at undergraduate level would be an ideal choice for you as an Arts student. Generally, the eligibility to join an LLB programme is a graduate degree; however, nowadays students can opt for a 5 year integrated programmes in law. The key among them include:

  • B.A + L.L.B – Bachelor of Arts & Bachelor of Legislative Law
  • BBA + L.L.B – Bachelor of Business Administration & Bachelor of Legislative Law
· Management Courses

Management has been the buzzword as far as career planning and growth is concerned. For Arts stream students as well, there are a host of management programmes available after completion of Class 12. These include bachelor degree level programmes, integrated five year programmes and even short-term certification programmes. However, the most popular among them are:

· Fashion Design / Design Courses

Designing is a big career domain for the arts students, especially for the students who specialize in visual arts stream. Therefore, several undergraduate level courses in design stream are available to the students of the Arts stream. Apart from the full-time three-year gradation courses in design, students can also take up certification and diploma courses as well which are offered by different institutes. The popular among them include:

  • Bachelor of Textile Design
  • Bachelor of Design (Accessory)
  • Bachelor of Fashion Communication
  • Bachelor of Interior Designing
  • Bachelor of Product Design
  • Furniture and Interior Design course
  • Bachelor of Design (Leather)
  • Bachelor of Fashion Design and Technology
· Performing Arts Courses

For those students who are interested in performing arts and want to build their career in it, there are a host of performing arts courses available after Class 12 Arts. These courses have been specifically designed to help gain the necessary knowledge and develop the essential skills. The most popular course in this domain is Bachelor in Performing Arts or BPA. Apart from these, short-term diploma and certificate level courses specific to respective performing arts is also provided by different institutes i.e. Certificate in Acting, Diploma in Script writing and Diploma in Dance, etc.

Career Scope for Arts stream students

Now, let’s come to the more important aspects i.e. career and job opportunities for Arts stream students. Thanks to the diverse nature of the stream, students from the Arts background have plenty of career options and job opportunities. The most popular career choice for the Arts stream students is to take up the teaching profession in the field or subject of their specialization. Similarly, they can also explore other career options depending upon the further study option that they opt for. These include business managers, lawyers, musicians, dancers, artists, actor, businessman, economist, statistician, architects, fashion designers, writers, historian and archaeologist.

Apart from the aforementioned career options, many students from the arts stream also choose government jobs in different departments and ministries. The UPSC civil services exam which is the qualifying exam for IAS, IPS, IFS and other high-level bureaucrats is also a preferred career option among the Arts stream students. Alternatively, they can also appear for for Banking sector recruitment exams, SSC / Staff Selection Commission Exams or State PCS exams to join the bureaucracy.

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Career After 12th Commerce


different disciplines after 12th Commerce

The bias against the Commerce Stream

Generally speaking, the commerce stream suffers from a great bias. Many students and parents consider commerce stream only suited for ‘not-so-smart’ students. Also, when compared to other streams, science is generally reserved for students with a technical or scientific bend of mind, while arts or the humanities discipline is suited to students who are interested in theoretical study and performing arts. On this front, commerce stream is deemed to be ideal for students who are comfortable with ‘crunching numbers’ and want to become accountants in the future. This is why many students believe that the scope of study under the commerce stream is limited, as compared to the other streams.

But these are mere generalizations and do not necessary hold true for commerce or any stream. The scope of the commerce stream ranges much more beyond mere number crunching or accountancy domain. There are a wide array of subjects and specialization and study options available to the students who join the commerce stream. Let’s discuss the same in detail below:

Key Subjects / Sub-domains

Despite the bias against the commerce stream, the popularity of this discipline has been growing exponentially during the last decade. Attribute it to the growing economy, professional career opportunities or the high scoring nature of the stream; many students have the commerce stream for their high school education and even after that. While traditionally, commerce stream was limited a few accountancy and economics related subjects, today it covers an array of subjects. The key among them include:

· Economics

As a commerce student, you will have to deal with several financial and economic concepts; this is where the knowledge of economics will come into the picture. During your Class 11 and Class 12, you will deal with basics of economics, Indian economic development, statistics, introduction to microeconomics and macroeconomics. The key to cracking economics during your high-school is to develop a conceptual understanding of the subject and practice problems and numerical.

· English

Like every stream, even commerce stream will have a compulsory language subject i.e. English in most cases. However, the economics that you learn in the commerce stream would be quite different from the other streams and will primarily focus on the basics of language including grammar, syntax, and vocabulary development. In addition to this you will also learn business communication and other aspects

· Accountancy

Accountancy is the central subject of the commerce stream and will play a pivotal role during your high-school education. The subject would focus on the basics of accountancy and its theoretical process and financial accountancy, accounting standards, GST, recording of business transactions and other similar concepts in your Class 11. For Class 12, you would be dealing with accountancy for non-profit organizations, partnership firms, companies as well as analysis of cash flow statement and financial statements. Computerized accounting will also be part of your high-school education.

· Business Studies/Organisation of Commerce

Business studies or the organization of commerce is another critical subject for the commerce stream students during their high-school education. In class 11, topics will range from the nature and purpose of business, forms or types of business organizations, emerging business models, types of enterprises, social responsibility and business ethics, sources of business finance, small business, internal trade and international business. During the Class 12 your study topics will include basics of management principles, business environment, planning, staffing, organization, controlling, financial markets, financial management, marketing management and consumer protection.

· Mathematics

Mathematics is an optional subject for the commerce students but is important if you want to build a career in the core accountancy or similar domains. The mathematics subject for commerce students includes study of relation and functions, algebra, calculus, liner programming, probability, vectors and matrices.

· Information Practices

Information Practices is another optional or elective subject for the commerce students which is to be picked by them depending on their interest. The subject deals with basics of computing and database management. It covers topics like business computing theory, programming and relational database management system.

Scope of Further studies

Another question that often keeps students away from the commerce stream is the perception that the scope of further studies in this stream is quite limited. However, this is a mere speculation and might have been true in a distant past. Today, the commerce stream has emerged as a study stream that is at par with the other two i.e. Arts and Science.

Degree Level Programmes

Commerce students can pursue a host of degree level programmes after the completion of their Class 12 high school education. The same have been discussed below.

· B.Com

B.Com stands for Bachelor of Commerce. It is a degree level course that is pursued by students who opt for commerce stream in Class 12. B.Com is the most popular degree level (3 year) course among the commerce stream students. During this course, students are taught fundamentals of accounting and finance beyond the basics that were covered during the high school education. The key subjects that are part of this course include:

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Corporate Accounting
  • Business Regulatory Framework
  • Economics
  • Computer Applications and IT
  • Income Tax
  • Auditing
  • Human Resource Management
  • Statistics
  • Banking and Insurance
  • Company Laws
  • Business Communications
  • Management Accounting
  • Marketing
  • Mathematics
  • Business Environment


If management or MBA is your calling then BBA or BMS will be right career path for your after completing 12th commerce. The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) / Bachelor of Management Studies (BMS) are degree level courses that are designed to introduce the students to the world of management education. While many BBA colleges offer admission on the basis of Class 12 score / merit, there are a few which require students to go through entrance exams.

· BA + LLB

If you are interested in Law or the legal studies, an integrated five year programme i.e. BA + LLB would be perfect for you. The integrated programmes covers your graduation degree during the first three years in the subject or specialization that you choose and during the final two years, you will be undertaking legal studies or education. This is another interesting study option for commerce students who want to specialize in law and their associated fields such as corporate law, taxation law and allied domains.


Similar to the BA + LLB course, the BBA + LLB course is also an integrated fove year programmes which covers graduate level management education as well as legal studies post that. Students who want to join corporate houses as legal consultants or want to start their own practice with corporate clients should take up this course.


Computers and technology have come to rule our day-to-day life and therefore taking up BCA or Bachelor of Computer Application can be the right start for you to build a bright career ahead. BCA course is a three year degree level programme that is undertaken by students who want to learn coding and computer application development. Commerce students who had mathematics as a subject during their high-school are eligible to take up BCA course.

Professional Courses

Commerce students also have a variety of professional courses that can shape their academic and professional future. There are several professional courses that are available to the students after the completion of Class 12 commerce. The key among them are:

Chartered Accountancy (CA)

Offered by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), Chartered Accountancy is the most popular professional course among the commerce students. Being a professional course, it opens up several career opportunities for the students, starting from self-employment or self-practice as an independent CA or employment in major Indian and multi-national companies, local and foreign banks and audit firms.

As far as the course structure is concerned, the Chartered Accountancy Course includes the following modules:

Module 1: CPT – Common Proficiency Test:

This test covers the basic knowledge of key subjects such as Accounts

.Mercantile Law

Module 2: IPCT – Integrated Professional Competence Course

This course has two parts and covers a variety of subjects and topics

o Part 1 incudes:

.Costing & Financials Management

o Part 2 includes:

.Advanced Accounting
.Auditing & Assurance
.Information Technology
.Strategic Management

Module 3: Articleship / Training

oIn this module, the students taking up CA course have to take up an internship under a practicing Chartered Accountant
oStudents can learn the practical aspects related to Chartered Accountancy as a profession during this training

Module 4: CA Final Exam

The fourth and the final module to become a certified professional Chartered Accountant involves clearing the final exam. The CA final exam covers 8 subjects that are divided into two groups. The detailed breakup of the subjects covered under both the groups are:

o CA Final Exam – Group I

.Financial Reporting
.Strategic Financial Management
.Advanced Auditing & Professional Ethics
.Corporate Law & Allied Laws (includes two sections)

Section A: Company Law
Section B: Allied Laws

o  CA Final Exam – Group II

.Advanced Management Accounting
.Information systems Control and Audit
.Direct Tax Laws
.Indirect Tax Laws (includes three sections)

Section A: Central Excise
Section B: Service Tax & VAT
Section C: Customs

Company Secretary

Company Secretary is another popular course for commerce students after the completion of Class 12 exams. This professional course is offered by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) in three stage examination format.

·Stage 1: Foundation Programme

 Eligibility: Class 12 / 10+2 or equivalent (except Fine Arts students)

 Key Modules:

  • Business environment and law
  • Business management, ethics & entrepreneurship
  • Business economics
  • Fundamentals of accounting and auditing

· Stage 2: Executive Programme

  Eligibility: Graduation (except Fine Arts students)

  Key Modules:

  • Jurisprudence, Interpretation & General Laws
  • Company Law
  • Setting Up Of Business Entities & Closure
  • Tax Laws

. Stage 3: Professional Programme

 Eligibility: Clearing Executive Programme

 Key Modules:

  • Corporate & management accounting
  • Securities laws & capital markets
  • Economic, business and commercial laws
  • Financial and strategic management


Cost & Management Accountant (CMA)

The Cost & Management Accountant is another professional course that can be pursued by the commerce stream students.  The course is conducted by the Institute of Cost Accountants of India and is divided into three stages i.e.

  • Foundation
  • Intermediate
  • Final

After the completion of the programme, you will be a certified Cost Accountant. A certified Cost Accountant’s key responsibilities include:

  • Maintaining cost account records
  • Planning of cost accounts
  • Cost Auditing

Many large companies, industries and corporations hire CMA’s to manage the cost of production or operational costs. CMAs ensure smooth functioning of the company by cutting cost in a managed manner without impacting the output or production.

Certified Financial Planner (CFP)

If personal finance and wealth management are the fields that interest you, becoming a certified financial planner should the right career choice for you. For many of the commerce students, the knowledge of taxation policies and the general awareness about investment basics is already covered during the foundational years. This puts them in a great place to be a financial planner.

In order to become a certified Financial Planner, students have to get a certificate from the Financial Planning Standards Board of India (FPSBI). The FPSBI offers a technical programme that trains commerce students in the art and science of financial planning, personal financial advisory practices, taxation, risk management and others.

The course is spread across 6 modules and exam for each module is held in the online format and the questions are asked in MCQ / multiple choice questions style. The modules include:

.Introduction to Financial Planning

.Risk Analysis & Insurance Planning

.Retirement Planning & Employee Benefits

.Investment Planning

.Tax Planning & Estate Planning

.Advance Financial Planning

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Career after 12th Science

different disciplines after 12th Science

The popularity of the Science Stream

Traditionally, the Science stream has been a popular choice for the students, as it offers several exciting and lucrative opportunities to the students. In fact, many parents push their children to opt for the science stream after the completion of Class 10, as it opens avenues for professional scientific courses at graduation and post-graduate level. As a science stream student, you will be involved in the systematic scientific study of natural occurrences through observation, theoretical study as well as application study and experimentation.

Key Subjects

Science is a vast subject stream and covers almost anything and everything that we can see, touch, hear, feel and even beyond that. Everything in the world, no not only the world, but the universe that we live in, falls under the ambit of science. However, during your 11th and 12th Class studies, you will be dealing with three main sub-streams of the subject, i.e., Physics, Chemistry and Biology. In addition to this, you will also have Mathematics as one of the core subjects along with a compulsory language subject. With computer technology taking the centre stage in the scientific study domains, you will also have the computer science as a foundational subject.

  • Physics – Physics is a natural science under which you will study the matter and its motions. Here, you will also study how matter interacts with energy and forces. It is the study of the universe that surrounds us and how it behaves. As part of the Physics subject, you will study the smallest elementary particles and atoms as well as the largest stars and the universe. Some key topics that will be covered as part of Physics subject in Class 11 and Class 12 include electricity, astronomy, motion, waves, sound, and light.
  • Chemistry – Chemistry is again the study of matter and how it undergoes changes due to various processes. Under Chemistry, you will study the structure, composition, behaviour and properties of matter and how these properties change or can be changed through chemical reactions. The subject is closely related to Physics and will have many overlapping topics and concepts.
  • Biology – Biology is the study of living organisms. Under Biology, you will be studying life and different living organisms. The subject will cover the origin, growth, structure, function, evolution and distribution of different life-forms on earth. There are three key sub-domains of Biology i.e.
    • Zoology – This branch deals with the animal kingdom and studies their behaviour, structure and physiology.
    • Botany – Botany is the scientific study of plants and everything associated with it.
    • Microbiology – It is the branch of biology that deals with microorganisms. Under this domain, you will study microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

Science Stream – Subject Groups

As part of the Science stream, the students are given the choice to opt for two subject combinations or choices.

· PCM – Physics + Chemistry + Mathematics

Also known as the Mathematics Group, the PCM is the subject combination that is ideal for students who want to pursue engineering education. Students who take this subject combination in Class 11 will have to study Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics and allied disciplines as their key subjects along with one language.

· PCMB – Physics + Chemistry + Mathematics + Biology

The PCMB group is known as the Biology Group and is preferred by students who want to build their careers in medical or medicine domain. Students taking up this subject combination will have Physics, Chemistry Mathematics and Biology as their key subjects and other allied subjects such as microbiology and others. They will also have a compulsory language subject and computer science / IT as part of their curriculum.

How to pick the right subject group?

Picking the right subject group for 11th and 12th Science stream students is very important. The subject group or the combination that you opt for will decide your future academic studies as well as the job and career prospects that lie ahead of you. Therefore, in order to pick the right subject combination you must consider the following factors:

  • Your Interest: Students must consider their interest areas and the subjects that they like to study in the long run. If you are comfortable with physics, chemistry and mathematics as a subject stream and are interested in building a career in engineering; PCM will be the ideal subject group for you. 
  • Your Strengths & Weaknesses: In addition to their interest, students must also consider their strengths and weaknesses while choosing the subject. For instance, picking PCMB because you are interested biology but haven’t done well in the chapters related to it during your Class 10; it might not be such a great idea. In Class 11 and 12 you will be faced with the detailed study of the subject and not having good command over the basics might cost you in future.

Scope of further studies in the Science Stream

As far as study after high school or Class 11 and Class 12 is concerned, students from the science stream have a wide array of course options to consider and choose from. The biggest advantage that the science stream students have is that they also have the option to opt for non-science courses for their degree level programmes, which opens up several course options for them. So, let’s look at some key course options that science stream students have.


Engineering is probably the most popular career choice for students who pick science stream. Every year, almost 11 lakh science stream students appear for JEE engineering entrance exam, which clearly proves the importance and popularity of this option. After option for engineering, students have a chance to join premier technology schools in the country i.e. IITs. Apart from this, engineering itself has several specializations and sub-disciplines which students can opt for depending on their choice and preference. The top engineering specializations include:

·Bachelor’s Degree Courses for Mathematics Group Students

If engineering is not something that interests you, you can also go for a regular three-year bachelor degree programmes which are offered by a number of universities across the country. These courses are regular undergraduate courses in which you will have to pick a specialization subject. The course will primarily focus on theoretical aspects with practical training as well. Some popular bachelor level courses for Math group students are:

  • B.Sc. IT
  • B.Sc. Computer Science
  • B.Sc. Chemistry
  • B.Sc. Mathematics
  • B.Sc. Physics
  • B.Sc. Hotel Management
  • B.Sc. Nautical Science
  • B.Sc. Electronics
  • B.Sc. Electronics and Communication

Medical or medicine is also a very important career option for science stream students. Students who opt for PCB / PCMB subject combination can opt for medical courses at the graduate and the post-graduate level. At the graduate level, students can opt for MBBS, which is the most popular medical course. Other than this, students can also opt for undergraduate medical courses like:

  • BDS (Dental)
  • BAMS (Ayurveda)
  • BHMS (Homeopathy)
  • B.Pharm (Pharmacy)
  • BPT (Physiotherapy)
  • BUMS (Unani Medicine)
  • BASLP (Audiology and Speech-Language Therapy)
· Bachelor’s Degree Courses for Medical Group Students

Just like the Mathematics group students, even the students who pick Biology group and are not interested in taking up MBBS or medical specializations can opt for Bachelor degree level programmes. These programmes are available with an array of subject specialization that can help you explore the subject in detail. After the completion of the course, you can opt for further research or take up teaching. Some of the popular Bachelor’s Degree courses for medical group students are:

  • B.Sc. Biochemistry
  • B.Sc. Biology
  • B.Sc. Environmental Science
  • B.Sc. Biotechnology
  • B.Sc. Nursing
  • B.Sc. Occupational Therapy
  • B.Sc. Physiotherapy
  • B.Sc. Radiology
  • B.Sc. Bioinformatics
  • B.Sc. Anthropology
  • B.Sc. Microbiology
  • B.Sc. Zoology
  • B.Sc. Forensic Science
  • B.Sc. Agriculture
  • B.Sc. Pathology
· Business

Business and management is another avenue that is a great academic and career opportunity for students who take up the science stream at the high school level. There are number of graduate-level business management courses on offer which include:

· Non-Science Bachelor’s Degree Courses

Science stream students have the option to opt for Bachelor’s degree courses in non-science subjects as well. This opens up several new avenues for the students as they can even target key professionals courses in humanities, commerce, law and other allied disciplines. The popular courses in this field include:


Law is another course option that is available to the science stream students after Class 12. Students from science stream can take up integrated courses at graduate level in this domain. The number of colleges offering integrated law courses is limited but students who get through them have excellent career opportunities in future.  The popular course options in this domain include:

  • B.Sc. + LL.B.
  • B.Tech. + LL.B.
  • B.Com. + LL.B.
  • BBA + LL.B.

Career Scope for Science Stream Students

Science stream is the most popular and preferred career stream among the students after Class 10. The main reason behind the popularity of this stream is that it opens up several lucrative career opportunities for the students in the future. The career scope for students after picking the science stream for high school is quite vast, especially because, they can also opt for non-science subjects or domains such as business, journalism and others in the future as well.
·For Mathematics Group Students

Mathematics Group students have a big advantage when it comes to career opportunities. Depending upon the course they opt for, they can become engineers, scientists, lawyers, government employees, pilots, pharmacists, architects, lawyers, teachers, managers, designers, computer experts and many more.

· For Biology Group Students

The career scope for Biology group students is also equally lucrative with several career opportunities. The key among them are doctors, scientists, dentists, orthodontists, pharmacists, therapists, nurses and many others. They also have the option of picking non-science career options such as teaching, lawyer, designer, journalists, etc.

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Career in different countries through Study Abroad

Different Countries through Study Abroad

Study Abroad for Indian Students

Have you been savouring dreams of joining Harvard or Princeton to pursue your higher education or wondering what would it be like to study at Oxford University? Well, you can stop wondering and start exploring different study abroad opportunities that awaits you as an Overseas Indian student. Many bright students in India miss out on getting admission to premier higher education institutes in India, thanks to the fierce competition. However, just because you missed the IIT-JEE cutoff or didn’t crack the CAT entrance test doesn’t mean your dream to study at the top colleges has to end.

You have one more avenue to explore i.e. Overseas Education or the Study Abroad option. Don’t get me wrong, it is not that getting admission to Ivy League Colleges in the USA or the best universities in Australia is an easy task. But, it is definitely worth a try, as top colleges across the world have realized the potential that Indian students bring and opened their campuses for them. So, let’s explore different Study Abroad options that Indian students have and how they can translate their dream to study in the best colleges of the world into a reality.


Why to Study Abroad?

Every year, the number of Indian students applying to foreign universities for admission has been increasing steadily, be it at graduation or post-graduation level. While many term this as ‘brain drain’, many others also see the bright side of opting to study abroad at the top colleges and universities. Let us look at the key advantages of studying abroad.

Advantages of Studying Abroad

1. Ease of Admission

Admission to India’s top higher education institutes is highly competitive in nature, be it IITs for engineering or IIMs for MBA. On the contrary, students with strong academic background and stable financial backing are welcomed at foreign universities. Although, the admission process for premier foreign colleges or universities is equally difficult, the competition is not as fierce as found in India.

2. Options Galore

The second reason that attracts Indian students to foreign shores for higher education is the availability of a variety of courses and career options. Apart from the main-stream popular options (STEM courses – Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), the courses available at premier higher education institutes in India is limited. This often forces students to look at foreign universities, who offer quality education programmes in niche or less popular courses (in India) as well.

3. Quality of Education

Quality of education, even at the best of the best colleges in India is often not at par with that being followed at the international level. Although, the quality of higher education institutes is improving gradually, there is a vast gap between conceptual knowledge and its practical application. On the other hand, foreign universities and colleges adopt a more interactive and participative teaching pedagogy through case studies and experiential learning which is makes it more interesting for the students.

4. Better Research Opportunities

When it comes to research opportunities, Indian higher education institutes are way behind their foreign counterparts. There is serious crunch of financial support and resources for doctoral programmes in India. Compared to this, foreign universities receive and invest a major amount in the development of research facilities and retaining students who can contribute to research in a diverse array of fields.

5. Jobs & Career Prospects

An academic degree from a foreign college or a university, especially from a well reputed one, adds much more weight to one’s Resume as compared to the one from an Indian higher education institute. Simply put, Indian students who have a foreign degree to their name are offered more job opportunities and higher pay packages.

6. Emigration

Emigration is also one of the motivating factors for Indian students to opt for Study Abroad option and join a foreign college or university. Especially, graduate level students who opt to study at foreign universities often have this reason at the top of their list. Many countries such as the US and Canada have favourable immigration policies for students who have studied there to seek employment upon the completion of the studies.

Top Study Abroad Destination for Indian Students

As more and more students from India look at the foreign shores for higher studies the list of most preferred study abroad destination for Indian students has also undergone some severe changes. While traditionally countries like USA, UK and Australia use to top this list in the last decade many new countries have also joined this list.

1. USA

The United States of America or the USA tops the list of study abroad destinations for international students in general and the case is no different for Indian students who want to pursue higher education overseas. With Ivy League colleges and universities such as Harvard, Stanford, Princeton and MIT attracting international talent, the US is surely the most preferred study abroad destination.

Top Study Abroad Courses in USA

  • Business & Management Studies
  • Engineering
  • Mathematics & Computer Sciences
  • Social Sciences
  • Physical & Life Sciences

2. Canada

Canada is one of the more recent entrants to this list and has emerged as the second most favoured study abroad destination for Indians. Quality of education, affordable cost and safe and multicultural environment are the key factors that contribute significantly to the popularity of Canada as an overseas education hub for the Indian students.

Top Study Abroad Courses in Canada

  • Business / Management Studies
  • Computer Sciences
  • Medical / Life Sciences
  • Hospitality / Hotel Management
  • Liberal Arts

3. Germany

Traditionally, United Kingdom or the UK use to wear the crown of the most preferred study abroad destination in Europe, but in the recent past, Germany has dethroned it. Backed by quality and affordable education, Germany has steadily risen to the top of the list of most preferred overseas destinations for the Indian students. The majority of German Universities charge nominal or no tuition fee that coupled with the fact that degrees awarded by them are recognized internationally makes it one of the best study abroad destinations for Indians.

Top Study Abroad Courses in Germany

  • Engineering
  • Business / Management Studies
  • Arts / Humanities
  • Mathematics & Computer Science
  • Fine & Applied Arts

4. Australia

Australia has also been a favourite among the international Indian students who choose the country for pursuing higher education courses. The country is recognized globally for a strong higher education system that offers University backed academic courses as well as a number of vocational programmes. Australia is also the preferred study destination for Indian researchers as it offers the necessary infrastructure and guidance to the doctoral students.

Top Study Abroad Courses in Australia

  • Business / Management Studies
  • Engineering
  • Mathematics & Computer Science
  • Medical / Health Studies
  • Social Sciences

5. Singapore

Singapore has emerged as the go-to study abroad destination for Indian students as far as Southeast Asia is concerned. The country is home to some of the highly ranked universities and higher education institutes offering Indian students the right mix of quality education at affordable cost. The emergence of Singapore as a major business centre for MNCs and global businesses has also contributed significantly to its status as a preferred overseas study destination for the Indian students.

Top Study Abroad Courses in Singapore

  • Business / Management Studies
  • Banking & Finance
  • Engineering
  • Computer Sciences
  • Law / Legal Studies

6. New Zealand

It is hard to believe but the small island nation next to Australia is also preferred by the Indian students for higher studies. In the last five years, the New Zealand has emerged as a favoured study destination for Indian students. With 8 universities listed in the top 500 universities in the world by QS making, the country has proven that it offers quality education that is in sync with the needs of the global business market. In addition to regular universities, New Zealand also has 20 institutes of technology and polytechnics and many private training establishments (PTE) which offers technical and vocational training to the students.

Top Study Abroad Courses in New Zealand

  • Business / Management Studies
  • Engineering
  • Social Sciences
  • Physical & Life Sciences
  • Mathematics & Computer Sciences

7. UK

Traditionally, the United Kingdom was the most preferred overseas study destination for the Indian students in Europe, but thanks to the strict student visa laws and the increasing cost of higher education, the country has fallen in the list of most preferred overseas destinations for the Indian students. With names such as Oxford and Cambridge as part of the list of universities, the UK has been a traditional favourite among the Indian students. The education system followed in the UK is also quite similar to the one in India making it more convenient for Indian students to take up higher education courses there. Availability of international study scholarships also aids Indian students in pursuing higher education courses in the UK.

Top Study Abroad Courses in New Zealand

  • Business / Management Studies
  • Engineering
  • Social Sciences
  • Physical & Life Sciences
  • Fine & Applied Arts

How to choose the right Study Abroad course / College?

When it comes to studying abroad, one nagging question that bothers students is how to choose the right study abroad course or college? There is no fixed or simple answer to this question. The right course or college for different students would vary as per their priorities and needs. However, in general, students planning to take up higher education courses abroad can consider the following factors to shortlist the right college and course:

  • Language / Medium of Study: Different countries follow different languages as medium of instruction for higher education. For instance, basic knowledge of German language is necessary for students who are planning to join a German university. Also, for the countries where courses are offered in English language, knowledge of the local language helps in connecting with the students and faculty members. 
  • Course Availability: In most cases, students who opt for foreign study decide the country first and then look for a college that offers the course they are interested in. This is a wrong strategy. Instead, you must finalize the course that you want to pursue and on the basis of that look for a country and a college in it that is reputed for it. Every country has its own specialization in sectors; make sure you apply to the relevant country.
  • Cost of Education: Cost of Education is not only limited to the course fee or the tuition fee that you pay to the college. It includes the overall cost including cost of living, study materials, student visa, boarding and lodging, etc. The course, college and the country you decide for study abroad must be within your budget and should not financially stress you in the long run.
  • Application Process: The application process for student visa, college applications, scholarships and education loans must also be accounted for while deciding a study abroad option. The lengthier the application process, the more time you will lose as far as your academic and professional is concerned. Therefore, it is preferred to pick a country that has unified application process for admissions.

Study Abroad – Prerequisite Exams


The International English Language Testing System is probably the most popular test among the students who are planning to pursue their studies abroad. It is an English proficiency test for Indian students planning to take up higher education in a foreign (English-speaking) country. The IELTS test is designed to evaluate the key language skills of the students i.e., listening, reading, speaking, and writing. The universities and educational institutions in leading education hubs for Indian students like the US, UK, New Zealand and Canada, accept IELTS scores to admit students to higher education programmes.


TOFEL or the Test of English Language as a Foreign Language is an English proficiency test that is conducted to evaluate the English speaking ability and understanding of a candidate. Over 9,000+ colleges, foreign universities and institutes accept TOFEL score as a valid measure of proof of English proficiency. Nearly 130 are the active participants of TOFEL where the test score is accepted to admit international students. The test is conducted by the Educational Test Service (ETS) which is an American non-profit organization.

3. GRE

Graduate Record Examination, popularly known as the GRE Test in the common parlance; is a standardized entrance test accepted by several popular and reputed B-schools, universities and educational institutes across the globe. The GRE Test is administered and conducted by Educational Testing Service (ETS) and helps educational institutions compare academic profiles and efficiency of different students for admission process.


GMAT which stands for Graduate Management Admission Test; is a globally accepted MBA entrance examination through which MBA aspirants are screened, shortlisted and selected for admission. Conducted by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC); GMAT is a computer adaptive test that tests quantitative, analytical, writing and verbal as well as reading skills of an MBA aspirant.

5. SAT

Scholastic Assessment Test is a standardized test for students planning to take up higher education overseas. Initially, SAT was developed as a common entrance test for students intending to join colleges / universities for higher education in the US. Currently conducted by the College Board, SAT exam is a mandatory requirement for seeking admission to undergraduate programmes offered at foreign universities.  Apart from the general SAT tests, candidates can also take up respective SAT Subject tests in order to support their candidature for a particular subject course / programme.

6. ACT

The American College Test is a standardized test that measures the academic readiness of the students applying for admission to American colleges. The ACT standardized test is aimed at high-school students who are seeking entry to undergraduate level academic college programmes in the US.

7. CAE

Offered by the University of Cambridge ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages); the Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) Test is a standardized English proficiency test that assesses all language skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. The CAE test has been developed by experts at Cambridge to evaluate the English language communication skills of students required for complex academic and professional duties in foreign countries.


Law School Admission Test is a very important standardized test for students planning to pursue law education in the USA, Canada and many other countries. The test is managed and administered by Law school admission council (LSAC) and acts as a uniform measurement tool of knowledge and intelligence for all law school applicants. A good LSAT score will go a long way in supporting your candidature to reputed law schools in any major English-speaking education hub for Indian students.

9. Pearson Test of English

Pearson Test of English Academic or the PTE Academic Test is a language proficient test for students keen to pursue their higher education in a foreign country. PTE is a computerized test conducted by Pearson which evaluates the English language proficiency of non-native English speakers or people whose mother tongue is not English. The PTE test results are widely accepted by universities, colleges and other educational institutions across the world in almost all major English speaking countries which are educational hubs for Indian students including USA, UK, Canada and Australia.

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